0962: Otto I invades Italy and is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1032: Conrad II claims the throne of France.
1494: Columbus begins the practice of using Indians as slaves.
1626: Charles I is crowned King of England. Fierce internal struggles between the monarchy and Parliament characterized 17th century English politics.
1848: The Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo formally ends the Mexican War.
1870: The press agencies Havas, Reuter and Wolff sign an agreement whereby between them they can cover the whole world.
1876: The National Baseball League is founded with eight teams.
1900: Six cities, Boston, Detroit, Milwaukee, Baltimore, Chicago and St. Louis agree to form baseball's American League.
1916: U.S. Senate votes independence for Philippines, effective in 1921.
1934: Alfred Rosenberg is made philosophical chief of the Nazi Party.
1943: Last of the German strongholds at Stalingrad surrender to the Red Army.
1972: The Winter Olympics begin in Sapporo, Japan.