1699: The Treaty of Karlowitz ends the war between Austria and the Turks.
1788: A fleet of ships carrying convicts from England lands at Sydney Cove in Australia. The day is since known as Australia's national day.
1861: Louisiana secedes from the Union.
1863: President Lincoln names General Joseph Hooker to replace Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac.
1875: Pinkerton agents, hunting Jesse James, kill his 18-year-old half-brother and seriously injure his mother with a bomb.
1924: Petrograd is renamed Leningrad.
1934: Germany signs a 10-year non-aggression pact with Poland, breaking the French alliance system.
1942: American Expeditionary Force lands in Northern Ireland.
1943: The first Office of Strategic Services agent parachutes behind Japanese lines in Burma.
1964: Eighty-four people are arrested in a segregation protest in Atlanta.
1969: California is declared a disaster area after two days of flooding and mud slides.
2005: Condoleezza Rice is appointed to the post of secretary of state. The post makes her the highest ranking African-American woman ever to serve in a U.S. presidential cabinet.