1540: Henry VIII of England marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell is beheaded on Tower Hill in England.
1615: French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovers Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
1794: Robespierre is beheaded in France.
1835: King Louis-Philippe of France survives an assassination attempt.
1868: The 14th Amendment to the Constitution, which guarantees citizenship to all those born or naturalized in the United States, is adopted.
1898: Spain, through the offices of the French embassy in Washington, D.C., requests peace terms in its war with the United States.
1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, beginning World War I.
1920: Pancho Villa surrenders to the Mexican government.
1945: A B-25 bomber crashes into the Empire State Building in New York City, killing 13 people.
1965: President Lyndon Johnson sends an additional 50,000 troops to South Vietnam.
1990: A fire at an electrical substation causes a blackout in Chicago. Some 40,000 people were without power for up to three days.
1996: Discovery of remains of a prehistoric man near Kennewick, Washington, casts doubts on accepted beliefs of when, how and where the Americas were populated.
2005: Britain experiences its most costly tornado to date, causing 40 million Sterling Pounds of damage to Birmingham in just four minutes. There were no fatalities.
2005: The Irish Republican Army (IRA) announces an end to its 30-year armed campaign in Northern Ireland.