1777: American troops give up Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain, to the British.
1795: Thomas Paine defends the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.
1798: Napoleon Bonaparte's army begins its march towards Cairo from Alexandria.
1807: Czar Alexander meets with Napoleon Bonaparte.
1815: After defeating Napoleon at Waterloo, the victorious Allies march into Paris.
1853: Japan opens its ports to trade with the West after 250 years of isolation.
1863: Confederate General Robert E. Lee, in Hagerstown, Maryland, reports his defeat at Gettysburg to President Jefferson Davis.
1925: Afrikaans is recognized as one of the official languages of South Africa, along with English and Dutch.
1927: Christopher Stone becomes the first British disc jockey when he plays records for the BBC.
1941: Although a neutral country, the United States sends troops to occupy Iceland to keep it out of Germany's hands.
1943: Adolf Hitler makes the V-2 missile program a top priority in armament planning.
1966: The U.S. Marine Corps launches Operation Hasting to drive the North Vietnamese Army back across the Demilitarized Zone in Vietnam.
1969: The first U.S. units to withdraw from South Vietnam leave Saigon.
1981: Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court.