1064: Coimbra, Portugal falls to Ferdinand, king of Castile.
1534: Jacques Cartier sails into the mouth of the St. Lawrence River in Canada.
1790: Civil war breaks out in Martinique.
1863: At the Battle of Brandy Station in Virginia, Union and Confederate cavalries clash in the largest cavalry battle of the Civil War.
1923: Bulgaria's government is overthrown by the military.
1931: Robert H. Goddard patents a rocket-fueled aircraft design.
1942: The Japanese high command announces that "The Midway Occupation operations have been temporarily postponed."
1945: Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki declares that Japan will fight to the last rather than accept unconditional surrender.
1951: After several unsuccessful attacks on French colonial troops, North Vietnam's General Vo Nguyen Giap orders Viet Minh to withdraw from the Red River Delta.
1954: At the Army-McCarthy hearings, attorney Joseph Welch asks Senator Joseph McCarthy, "Have you no sense of decency?"
1959: The first ballistic missile-carrying submarine, the USS George Washington, is launched.
1986: NASA publishes a report on the Challenger accident.