1189: Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assemble the troops for the Third Crusade.
1790: Joseph Guillotine proposes a new, more humane method of execution: a machine designed to cut off the condemned person's head as painlessly as possible.
1793: The French King Louis XVI is guillotined for treason.
1921: J.D. Rockefeller pledges $1 million for the relief of Europe's destitute.
1930: An international arms control meeting opens in London.
1933: The League of Nations rejects Japanese terms for settlement with China.
1941: The United States lifts the ban on selling arms to the Soviet Union.
1951: Communist troops force the UN army out of Inchon, Korea after a 12-hour attack.
1958: The Soviet Union calls for a ban on nuclear arms in Baghdad Pact countries.
1964: Carl T. Rowan is named the director of the United States Information Agency.
1968: In Vietnam, the Siege of Khe Sanh begins as North Vietnamese units surround U.S. Marines based on the hilltop headquarters.
1976: Leonid Brezhnev and Henry Kissinger meet to discuss Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty.
1977: President Carter urges 65 degrees as the maximum heat in homes to ease the energy crisis.