1861: The U.S. Senate, voting 36 to 0, expels Senator John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky because of his joining the Confederate Army.
1861: Queen Victoria of Britain forbids the export of gunpowder, firearms and all materials for their production.
1900: The French National Assembly, successor to the States-General, rejects Nationalist General Mercier’s proposal to plan an invasion of England.
1918: France cancels trade treaties in order to compete in the postwar economic battles.
1941: Operation Taifun (Typhoon), which was launched by the German armies on October 2, 1941 as a prelude to taking Moscow, is halted because of freezing temperatures and a lack of serviceable aircraft.
1942: U.S. planes make the first raids on Naples, Italy.
1947: Tennessee William’s play A Streetcar Named Desire premieres on Broadway starring Marlon Brando and Jessica Tandy.
1950: The University of Tennessee defies court rulings by rejecting five Negro applicants.
1981: President Ronald Reagan broadens the power of the CIA by allowing spying in the United States.
1985: Robert McFarland resigns as National Security Advisor. Admiral John Poindexter is named to succeed him.
1991: The last American hostages held in Lebanon are released.
1992: President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 troops to Somalia during the Somali Civil War.