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1485: Henry VII of England is crowned.
1838: Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Lorain County, Ohio becomes the first college in the U.S. to admit female students.
1905: The czar of Russia issues the October Manifesto, granting civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeoning support for revolution.
1922: Mussolini sends his black shirts into Rome. The Fascist takeover is almost without bloodshed. The next day, Mussolini is made prime minister. He centralizes all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempts to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler‘s Germany.
1938: H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds is broadcast over the radio by Orson Welles’ Mercury Theatre. Many panic believing it is an actual newscast about a Martian invasion.
1953: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves a top secret document to maintain and expand the country’s nuclear arsenal.
1961: The USSR detonates “Tsar Bomba,” a 50-megaton hydrogen bomb.
1965: U.S. Marines repel multiple-wave attacks by the Viet Cong within a few miles of Da Nang where the Marines are based; a sketch of Marine positions was found on the body of a 13-year-old boy who had been selling the Americans drinks the previous day.
1974: The “Rumble in the Jungle,” a boxing match in Zaire that many regard as the greatest sporting event of the 20th century, takes place; challenger Muhammad Ali knocks out previously undefeated World Heavyweight Champion George Foreman.
1975: Prince Juan Carlos becomes acting head of state in Spain, replacing the ailing dictator Gen. Francisco Franco.
1985: The Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for its final successful mission.
2005: The rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) that was destroyed during the firebombing of Dresden in WWII is rededicated.